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RO Winstedt - Shaman Saiva and Sufi (180.0 Kb)

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THis book is the outcome of a close study of the language and beliefs of the Malays during a period of residence in the Malay Peninsula that has now reached twenty?two years. Its object is to unravel a complex system of magic in the light of historical and comparative data. By itself this system is a tangle every thread of which scholars working in Europe are led to term Malay, although even the native distinguishes this thread as Indian and that as Muslim. Chapters i.?iv. deal with the Malay's evolution from animist to Musl... More >>>
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Category 1:  Shamanism and Animals
Category 2:  Pagans and Paganism
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Author:      RO Winstedt
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THis book is the outcome of a close study of the language and beliefs of the Malays during a period of residence in the Malay Peninsula that has now reached twenty?two years. Its object is to unravel a complex system of magic in the light of historical and comparative data. By itself this system is a tangle every thread of which scholars working in Europe are led to term Malay, although even the native distinguishes this thread as Indian and that as Muslim. Chapters i.?iv. deal with the Malay's evolution from animist to Muslim chapters v. and vi. with his animism chapters vii. and viii. with his shamanism chapter ix. with rites largely infected with Hindu magic and chapters x. and xi. with Muslim accretions. Like all writers on this subject I am indebted to the classical works of Tylor, Frazer, and Jevons, and particularly to the articles by specialists on the magic of different races and faith in Hastings' Encyclopaedia

of Religion and Ethics. Working far away from an adequate library, I have found this Encyclopaedia of incalculable value.

Chapters iv., vi. and viii. are based almost entirely on manuscripts written down for me by Malays and checked by my own observation. The chapter on "Magician and Muslim" is founded on Malay lithographed texts and on a manuscript magic religious treatise obtained by Dr. Gimlette in Kelantan and kindly lent by him to me. The same manuscript and an old Perak court charm book have been used for the chapters on "The Malay Charm" and "Magician and Mystic." Papers on Malay charms, on birth and marriage ceremonies, on the ritual of the rice field and the ritual of propitiating the spirits of a district have appeared from my pen in the Journal of the Federated Malay States Museums, and should be in the hands of those who wish to study original sources and vernacular terms. I owe a debt to the authors of many articles printed in the Straits (now Malayan) Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, to Dr. Gimlette's Malay Poisons and Charms, to Fasciculi Malayenses by Messrs. Annandale & Robinson, and above all to that assiduous collector, Mr. W. W. Skeat, the author of Malay Magic. Not to burden my pages with footnotes I give detailed references and authorities for each chapter in an appendix. I would remind Malay readers that every race has its lumber room of magical beliefs and practices, and many such survivals are gracious and beautiful and full of historical interest. It is to be hoped that the rapid influx of modern ideas will not wash away too many of the landmarks of their complex and ancient civilisation.

I have to thank Mr. C. O. Blagden, Reader in Malay at the School of Oriental Studies, London, and Che' Zainal Abidin bin Ahmad of the Sultan Idris College, Perak, for reading this work in manuscript the former has made many useful suggestions and the latter given me valuable material. SINGAPORE,1924.

About Author:

Sir Richard Olaf Winstedt KBE CMG (2 August 1878 - 2 June 1966), or more commonly R. O. Winstedt, was an English Orientalist and colonial administrator with expertise in British Malaya.

Winstedt was born in Oxford, educated at Magdalen College School and New College, Oxford, from which he received an MA. In 1902 he became a cadet in the Federated Malay States Civil Service, and was posted to Perak where he studied Malay language and culture. In 1913 he was appointed District Officer in Kuala Pilah, and in 1916 appointed to the education department. In 1920 Winstedt received his DLitt degree from Oxford.

His brother was Eric Otto Winstedt, a Latinist and gypsiologist.

He served as first President of Raffles College, Singapore, 1928-1931. During his presidency, he also served as acting Secretary to the High Commissioner, 1923; Director of Education, Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States (FMS), and member of Legislative Council, Straits Settlements, 1924-1931; member of the FMS Federal Council, 1927-1931.

After a term as General Adviser to Johore, 1931-1935, Winstedt retired from the Malayan Civil Service and was appointed lecturer, then reader, and ultimately Honorary Fellow, in Malay at the School of Oriental Studies, where he also served as a member of the Governing Body, 1939-1959. During World War II, he broadcast in Malay to Japanese-occupied Malaya. He retired from active teaching in 1946.

Winstedt served on numerous boards and advisory groups, most notably the Royal Asiatic Society of which he was repeatedly the president and a Gold Medallist in 1947; the Association of British Malaya, of which he was president in 1938; the Colonial Office Advisory Committee on Education, 1936-1939; and the Royal India Society. He was a Fellow of the British Academy, and an Honorary Member of Southeast Asia Institute, Royal Batavian Society, and Kon Instituut voor TaalLanden Volkenkunde.

He was instrumental in preserving several works of Malay literature including The Malay Annals as well as producing important works regarding the Malays and their language such as A History of Malaya and A Dictionary of Malay Language. According to Australian Journal of Politics and History, "Winstedt was the first British scholar to make a systematic survey of Malay material for historical purposes, and laid the true foundation of a scientific approach to the writing of Malayan history."

He also played an important role in the Malayan and Singaporean education system. Specifically, he was interested in educating the Malays. Upon his suggestion, Sultan Idris Training College was established in 1922 with the purpose of producing Malay teachers. In 1997, the Malaysian government upgraded the institution into a university.

In the 1926 Birthday Honours, Winstedt was made a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George for his contributions by the British sovereign. He was made Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1935, and received an Honorary LLD (Malaya) in 1951.

Winstedt's papers are archived at the School of Oriental and African Studies.

Sir Richard Olaf Winstedt's Selected works:

History and society

- Arts and Crafts (Papers on Malay Subjects; Malay industries, pt. 1), Kuala Lumpur: F.M.S. Government Press, 1909.
- Britain and Malaya, 1786-1941, London, 1944.
- The Circumstances of Malay Life: The kampong. The house. Furniture. Dress. Food (Papers on Malay Subjects; no. 2), Kuala Lumpur: F.M.S. Government Press, 1909.
- Fishing, Hunting and Trapping (Papers on Malay Subjects; Malay industries, pt. 2), Kuala Lumpur: F.M.S. Government Press, 1911.
- A History of Perak, Singapore, 1934.
- A History of Malaya, Singapore, 1935.
- A Malay History of Riau and Johore, etc. (Malay text of the Tu?fat al-nafis), Singapore, 1932.
- Malaya: the Straits Settlements and the Federated and Unfederated Malay States, London: Constable, 1923.
- Malayan Memories, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh, 1916.
- The Malays: a cultural history, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh, 1947.
- Shaman, Saiva and Sufi: a study of the evolution of Malay magic, London: Constable, 1925.
- A History of Johore, Singapore, 1932.
- Right Thinking and Right Living: a primer on moral & social topics, etc., Singapore : Malaya Publishing House, 1933.

Language and texts

- Cherita jenaka: ya-itu Pa Kadok, Pa Pandir, Lebai Malang, Pa Belalang, Si Lunchai, Singapore: Methodist Publishing House, 1908 (folk tales, written down by Raja Haji Yahya; joint editor with A. J. Sturrock).
--do.--New ed. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1963
- Colloquial Malay: a simple grammar with conversations, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh, 1916 (later editions: 2nd 1920, 3rd 1929, 4th 1938, revised 1945)
- Dictionary of Colloquial Malay: Malay-English & English-Malay, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh, 1920 (reissued several times until 1951).
- An English-Malay Dictionary, 2 vols. Singapore: Kelly & Walsh, 1914-15 (2nd ed. 1922, 3rd ed. 1939).
- Hikayat Anggun Che Tunggal, Singapore: Methodist Publishing House, 1914 (folk tale; joint editor with A. J. Sturrock).
- A Malay History of Riau and Johore, etc. (Malay text of the Tu?fat al-nafis), Singapore, 1932.
- A Malay Reader, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917.
- Misa Melayu; by Raja Chulan, Singapore: Methodist Publishing House, 1919 (editor; reissued in 1966 by Pustaka Antara, Kuala Lumpur).
- A Simple Malay Reader, London: Kegan Paul & Co., 1944.