Charles Godfrey Leland - Ariadia Or A Gospel Of The Witches (140.0 Kb)
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Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches is an 1899 book by Charles Godfrey Leland. The book is an attempt to portray the beliefs and rituals of an underground religious witchcraft tradition in Tuscany that, Leland claimed, had survived for centuries until his discovery of its existence in the 1890s. Scholars have disputed the veracity of this claim. Still, the book has become one of the foundational texts of the Neopagan witchcraft movements Wicca and Stregheria.The text is a composite. Some of it is Leland's translation into E... More >>>
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Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches is an 1899 book by Charles Godfrey Leland. The book is an attempt to portray the beliefs and rituals of an underground religious witchcraft tradition in Tuscany that, Leland claimed, had survived for centuries until his discovery of its existence in the 1890s. Scholars have disputed the veracity of this claim. Still, the book has become one of the foundational texts of the Neopagan witchcraft movements Wicca and Stregheria.
The text is a composite. Some of it is Leland's translation into English of an original Italian manuscript, the Vangelo (gospel). Leland reported receiving the manuscript from his primary informant on Italian witchcraft beliefs, a woman Leland referred to as "Maddalena" and whom he called his "witch informant" in Italy. The rest of the material comes from Leland's research on Italian folklore and traditions, including other related material from Maddalena. Leland had been informed of the Vangelo's existence in 1886, but it took Maddalena eleven years to provide him with a copy. After translating and editing the material, it took another two years for the book to be published. Its fifteen chapters portray the origins, beliefs, rituals and spells of an Italian pagan witchcraft tradition. The central figure of that religion is the goddess Aradia, who came to Earth to teach the practice of witchcraft to peasants in order for them to oppose their feudal oppressors and the Catholic Church.
Leland's work remained obscure until the 1950s, when other theories about, and claims of, "pagan witchcraft" survivals began to be widely discussed. Aradia began to be examined within the wider context of such claims. Scholars are divided, with some dismissing Leland's assertion regarding the origins of the manuscript, and others arguing for its authenticity as a unique documentation of folk beliefs. Along with increased scholarly attention, Aradia came to play a special role in the history of Gardnerian Wicca and its offshoots, being used as evidence that pagan witchcraft survivals existed in Europe, and because a passage from the book's first chapter was used as a part of the religion's liturgy. After the increase in interest in the text, it became widely available through numerous reprints from a variety of publishers, including a 1999 critical edition with a new translation by Mario and Dina Pazzaglini.
Charles Godfrey Leland (August 15, 1824 - March 20, 1903) is a forgotten American scholar, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was educated at Princeton University and in Europe.
Leland worked in journalism, travelled extensively, and became interested in folklore and folk linguistics, publishing books and articles on American and European languages and folk traditions. By the end of his life shortly after the turn of the century, Leland had worked in a wide variety of trades, achieved recognition as the author of the comic Hans Breitmann's Ballads, fought in two conflicts, and had written what was to become a primary source text for Neopaganism half a century later, Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches.
His father was a successful merchant who knew and worked with the important people of Philadelphia in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. At age 20 months, Charles had a serious "meningitis-like" illness. Later in life, he credited the brain damage from that illness as being a significant factor I his nervousness, idealism, romanticism, poetic ability and attraction to the occult and mysticism. Other significant early influences included his Dutch nurse's being a sorceress who "cast several spells" on him when he was young. Throughout his boyhood and developing years Charles' interest in the occult increased and, later in life, he worked with gypsies I England and Southeastern Europe. At age six, he memorized Prospero's speeches from Shakespeare's "The Tempest" and also became a voracious reader.
Charles Godfrey Leland's youth was almost idyllic. He went to a series of private schools in Philadelphia and during the summer lived with his cousins I the New England countryside. Although he tended to be nervous and had a number of illnesses, he grew to be a six-foot adult who was vigorous in adult life except for occasional episodes of depression. After graduation from Princeton, his father sent him to Heidelberg, Munich and Paris for post-graduate study. When he returned to the US, he worked as a journalist and as an editor for a number of years and even apprenticed in a law firm. During those years, he wrote hundreds of essays, reviews and articles for the major periodicals of the time, including Vanity Fair, Graham's Magazine, and the Knickerbocker Magazine. In the 1850's and during the Civil war he had strong pro-Union sentiments.
One of his poetic figures was the fictional "Hans Breitman," whose German-English dialect popularized Leland so that he became a sought-after, prosperous writer. However, he was ostracized by the academic community as not being sufficiently scholarly and scientific. Also he was regarded as being too far ahead of their mechanistic world. Nevertheless, he continued to delve into the occult. The income from "Hans Breitman's" sales and the inheritance from his father enabled him to pursue his studies independently. He studied Algonquin Indians' stories and myths, was a great folklorist and was a social anthropologist 75 years before Margaret Mead did her great work.
Leland did and impressive amount of fieldwork. He lived with Indian groups for months at a time and recorded their stories scientifically by checking with various sources. He also studied the myths of the Eskimos, a number of Finnish and Laplander groups and various Mongoloid peoples. He found parallels between the themes in various Norse Eddas and North American Indian myths and, inasmuch as the Algonquin Indians' stories could be related to the Norse legends, he developed a theory of diffusion of themes. He postulated that certain themes had spread form Greenland down to Canada and Northeastern America. Leland's studies, including the post-graduate work in Germany, led him to the conviction that the US did not have a meaningful, legitimate folk ethos. He maintained that the American Indians understood nature and spirituality better than even Emerson or Whitman. His works preceded Joseph Campbell's famous publications by about 100 years.
Charles Godfrey Leland then traveled in Europe to study the gypsies in England and to develop and publish a definitive dictionary of the gypsy language. He looked at the gypsies' origins in India and, to achieve the necessary understanding, identified their language (Shelta, the tongue used by itinerant English tinkers while they were "on the road"). He considered it to be an example of ancient Celtic language and wrote a dictionary of it. He traveled throughout Eastern Europe with various gypsy groups and finally went to Florence, Italy, where he stayed for a number of years to study the witches (stregas) of Northern Italy. During the next 20 busy years, Leland translated 20 volumes for German into English, including the complete works of the poet, Heinrich Heine.
It is unfortunate that Charles Godfrey Leland has been forgotten in many of the academic centers of America. He was truly a fascinating person. Although in his own time, he was thought not to be "scientific enough," as this brief survey reveals, he was 19th century Victorian genius who made contributions to anthropology, the history of medicine and literature. The time has come for him and his work not just to be recalled, but for him to take his rightful place in American scholarship.